Chapter 4 - The components of the mechanism Unit

External power supply, supplied by some exterior peripherals, that converts AC power right into DC strength that the peripheral requires.

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AC adapter
Expansion bus designed by Intel to improve the rate with which 3-D graphic and video transmit. Accelerated Graphics port (AGP)
Measures the lot of time the takes a processor or storage device to review or locate an item in memory or storage. access time
Circuit board that enhances features of a component of a mechanism unit and/or offers connections to peripherals. adapter card
Unique number the identifies the place of a byte in memory. address
The component of a bus that transfers information about where data should reside in memory. address bus
L2 cache constructed directly on the processor chip. advanced transfer cache (ATC)
Acronym because that arithmetic logic unit; component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations. ALU
Continuous (wave form) signals. analog
Component that a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations. arithmetic reasonable unit
Basic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and also division. arithmetic operations
American typical Code for information Interchange; the most widely used coding device to stand for data. ASCII
Bus the connects the processor to cache. backside bus (BSB)
Term offered to describe a device's capability of supporting older devices, as well as newer devices. backward compatible
Opening inside the system unit in which additional equipment have the right to be installed. bay
The smallest unit the data a computer system can process. See additionally bit. binary digit
Number device used by computers that has just two unique digits, 0 and also 1, dubbed bits. binary system
The the smallest unit that data a computer can process. Bit is short for binary digit. bit
Network standard, particularly a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth gadgets use short-range radio waves to transmit data. Bluetooth
Adapter the will transform an existing USB port into a Bluetooth port. Bluetooth wireless harbor adapter
Electrical channel that transfers digital bits internally in ~ the circuitry of a computer, enabling the devices both inside and also attached come the device unit to communicate with each other. bus
The dimension of a bus, which identify the variety of bits the a computer can transmit at one time. bus width
Eight bits that space grouped with each other as a unit. A byte gives enough various combinations of 0s and also 1s to stand for 256 separation, personal, instance characters. byte
Area that memory the stores the materials of generally used data or instructions. cache
Intel processor supplied by less-expensive an easy PCs. Celeron
Electronic component on a computer’s motherboard the interprets and carries the end the an easy instructions that run the computer. See also processor. central processing unit (CPU)
Mobile modern technology that integrates wireless ability in notebook computer systems and tablet computer PCs. Centrino 2
Case of the device unit do of steel or plastic that protects the interior electronic contents from damage. chassis
Small piece of semiconducting material, commonly silicon, top top which integrated circuits are etched. chip
One tick of the mechanism clock. clock cycle
Pace of the system clock, measured by the number of ticks per second. clock speed
Operations that involve to compare one data article with another to determine whether the first item is better than, same to, or much less than the other item. comparison operations
Technology provided by some lamb chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips that gives high speeds and also consumes small power by making use of battery strength to retain information also when the strength to a computer system is off. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
Device that joins a cable come a port. connector
Component the a processor that directs and coordinates many of the work in the computer. control unit
Family of Intel processors supplied in most high-performance PCs. Core
Part that a bus that transfers really data. data bus
Double Data price SDRAM; type of ram that is also faster than SDRAM due to the fact that it move data double for every clock cycle, rather of just once. DDR SDRAM
Second generation the DDR; form of lamb that is quicker than DDR. DDR2
Third generation the DDR; type of RAM, faster than DDR2, design for computers with multi-core processors. DDR3
Processor procedure that converts a program instruction into signals the computer system can execute. decoding
Representation of data using only two discrete states: ~ above (1) and also off (0). digital
Type of memory module that has pins top top opposite political parties of the circuit board that carry out not connect, thereby forming two sets of contacts. DIMMS generally hold SDRAM chips. DIMM (dual inline memory module)
External maker that attaches to a mobile computer or maker and gives power relationships to peripherals, in addition to memory cards, optical disc drives, and also other devices. docking station
Rectangular opening in the mechanism unit that generally holds decaying drives. drive bay
Processor chip that has two different processor cores. dual-core processor
Type of lamb chip that have to be re-energized continuous or lose its contents. dynamic ram (DRAM)
Variation the a PROM chip that permits a programmer to erase microcode through an electrical signal. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) chip
Short for outside SATA; special-purpose harbor that enables you to affix an outside SATA (Serial Advanced an innovation Attachment) hard disk come a computer. eSATA port
Processor operation that carries the end commands; part of the device cycle. executing
Bus that allows the processor to interact with peripherals. expansion bus
Circuit board that enhances attributes of a component of a mechanism unit and/or gives connections come peripherals. See likewise adapter card. expansion card
Socket ~ above a motherboard that can hold one adapter card. expansion slot
Removable flash memory maker that adds memory, communications, multimedia, and also security capabilities come mobile computers. ExpressCard module
Special form of development slot in desktop, notebook, and also mobile computers that holds an ExpressCard. ExpressCard slot
Drive only that allows users to accessibility openings in the only from exterior the system unit. external bay
Special-purpose port that enables you to affix an exterior SATA (Serial Advanced technology Attachment) hard disk to a computer. external SATA port
A high-speed IrDA port. fast infrared port
Processor procedure that obtains a program instruction or data item indigenous memory. fetching
Expansion bus that eliminates the should install cards in development slots. FireWire bus
Device the plugs in a FireWire port on the device unit and contains many FireWire port in which girlfriend plug cables from FireWire devices. FireWire hub
Port the can affix multiple varieties of tools that require much faster data transmission speeds. See also IEEE 1394 port FireWire port
ROM chips the contain permanently created data, instructions, or information, taped on the chips once they to be manufactured. firmware
Type of nonvolatile storage that can be erased electronically and also rewritten. flash memory
Term supplied to refer to size and shape the a desktop computer personal computer system system unit. form factor
Bus the is component of the motherboard and also connects the processor to main memory. See likewise system bus. front next bus (FSB)
Device that joins a port and a connector that space both female or both male. gender changer
Approximately 1 exchange rate bytes. gigabyte (GB)
One exchange rate ticks the the system clock per second. gigahertz (GHz)
Adapter card that converts computer system output into a video clip signal the travels through a cable come the monitor, which displays an image on the screen. Watch also video clip card. graphics card
Small cooling machine used come cool processors in notebook computers heat pipe
Small ceramic or steel component v fins on its surface that absorbs and ventilates heat produced by electrical components. heat sink
One clock cycle every second. hertz
More advanced and faster kind of USB. See additionally USB 2.0. Hi-Speed USB
Feature that enables you to insert or remove a removable speed memory device and other devices while the computer system is running. hot plugging
Port that can attach multiple types of devices that require quicker data transmission speeds. See also FireWire port. IEEE 1394 port
Electronic component that has many microscope pathways qualified of carrying electrical current. integrated circuit
Processors that have actually an interior design comparable to that of Intel processors, execute the same attributes as Intel processors, and can be as powerful, yet often are less expensive. Intel-compatible processors
Drive bay the is concealed entirely within the device unit. internal bay
Infrared Data Association; network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves. IrDA
Port that provides infrared irradiate waves to transmit signals between a wireless an equipment and a computer. IrDA port
Intel processor used by workstations and low-end servers. Itanium
Term periodically used to identify an audio or video port. jack
Exactly 1,024 bytes. kilobyte (KB or K)
A type of storage cache the is built directly right into the processor chip, through a volume of 8 KB come 128 KB. L1 cache
A form of storage cache that is contempt slower 보다 L1 cache, yet has a much bigger capacity, varying from 64 KB come 16 MB. L2 cache
Cache top top the motherboard the is different from the processor. L3 cache
A constant flow that fluid(s), such together water and also glycol, that transfers the heated fluid away from the processor, cools the liquid, climate returns the cooled liquid to the processor. liquid cooling technology
The four basic operations (fetching, decoding, executing, and also storing) perform by a processor. machine cycle
Newer form of ram that shop data making use of magnetic charges instead of electric charges. magnetoresistive lamb (MRAM)
Type of memory that deserve to be review from and written come by the processor and also other devices. Programs and data are loaded into RAM native storage devices such as a tough disk and also remain in lamb as long as the computer system has consistent power. main memory
Large scale parallel handling that requires hundreds or thousands of processors. massively parallel processing
Approximately 1 million bytes. megabyte (MB)
Electronic materials in a computer system that save instructions waiting to be enforcement by the processor, the data necessary by those instructions, and also the outcomes of processing the data. memory
Cache that helps rate the processes of a computer system by storing generally used instructions and data. memory cache
Removable flash memory device, usually no bigger 보다 1.5" in height or width, the you insert and also remove from a slot in a personal computer, game console, cell phone device, or map reader/writer. memory card
Small circuit board that dwellings RAM chips and also is hosted in a memory slot ~ above the motherboard. memory module
Slots on the motherboard that hold memory modules. memory slots
Instructions programmers use to program a PROM chip. microcode
Term offered by part computer and chip manufacturers to describe a processor chip for a personal computer. See likewise processor. microprocessor
Special type of serial port the connects the system unit come a musical instrument, such as an digital keyboard. MIDI port
Main circuit plank of the system unit, which has actually some electronic materials attached to it and also others constructed into it. See additionally system board. motherboard
Single chip through two or much more separate processor cores. multi-core processor
Software created to support multiple threads. multi-threaded program
Electronic music industry’s standard that defines how gadgets represent sound electronically. Musical tool Digital Interface
One billionth that a second. nanosecond
Type the memory that does not shed its components when a computer’s power is rotate off. nonvolatile memory
One billionth the a second. See likewise nanosecond. ns
Processing an approach that offers multiple processors concurrently to execute a single program or task in order to speed processing times. parallel processing
Thin, credit-card-sized removable flash memory device that primarily is offered today to permit traditional notebook computer systems and tablet PCs to access the web wirelessly. PC Card
Expansion bus because that a pc Card. PC card bus
Special kind of growth slot in desktop, notebook, and also mobile computers that stop a pc Card. PC card slot
High-speed development bus that connects greater speed devices. PCI bus (Peripheral component Interconnect bus)
Expansion bus that expands on and also doubles the rate of the initial PCI bus. PCI refer (PCIe) bus
Family of Intel processors provided by less expensive, basic PCs. Pentium
Device the connects to a mechanism unit and also is managed by the processor in the computer. peripheral
Concept in i beg your pardon the processor starts fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the very first instruction pipelining
Technology that provides a computer system the capability to configure adapter cards and other peripherals automatically as a user installs them. Plug and also Play
Point in ~ which a peripheral attaches come or communicates through a system unit for this reason it can send data come or receive info from the computer. port
External machine that attaches come a mobile computer system to carry out connections to peripherals with ports developed into the replicator. port replicator
Component of the mechanism unit that converts wall outlet AC power to the DC strength that is supplied by a computer. power supply
Electronic ingredient on a computer’s motherboard the interprets and also carries out the an easy instructions that operate the computer. Watch also main processing unit (CPU). processor
Blank ROM chip on which a programmer have the right to write permanently. PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip
Chip with 4 separate processor cores. quad-core processor
Type of storage that can be review from and written come by the processor and other devices. Programs and data room loaded right into RAM from storage tools such together a difficult disk and also remain in ram as lengthy as the computer has constant power. RAM
Type of memory that deserve to be check out from and also written come by the processor and also other devices. Programs and data space loaded into RAM indigenous storage gadgets such as a tough disk and also remain in lamb as lengthy as the computer system has consistent power. random accessibility memory
Rambus DRAM; kind of ram that is much much faster than SDRAM because it provides pipelining techniques. RDRAM
Type that nonvolatile memory the is offered to store permanent data and instructions. read-only storage (ROM)
Small, high-speed storage locations in a procedure that temporarily host data and instructions registers
Type of memory module that dwellings RDRAM chips. RIMM (Rambus inline storage module)
Newer type of SCSI the transmits at much faster speeds 보다 parallel SCSI. SAS (serial fastened SCSI)
Type that high-speed parallel interface used to affix peripheral tools to a computer. See likewise SCSI. SCSI (small computer system interface)
Special high-speed parallel harbor to which peripherals, such as disk drives and also printers, have the right to be attached. SCSI port
Synchronous DRAM; form of RAM, much faster than DRAM, the is synchronized come the device clock. SDRAM
Type of interface that connect a device to the device unit through transmitting data one bit at a time. serial port
Type of memory module that has actually pins ~ above opposite political parties of the circuit board that connect together to kind a single set of contacts. SIMMs frequently hold SDRAM chips. SIMM (single inline storage module)
Adapter map that boosts the sound generating capability of a personal computer by permitting sound to be input through a microphone and also output through external speakers or headset. sound card
Type of ram that is faster and more reliable than any variation the DRAM. static lamb (SRAM)
Concept of using memory to save both data and also programs. stored regime concept
Processor procedure that to write a an outcome to memory. storing
Term describing processors that deserve to execute much more than one instruction every clock cycle superscalar
Peripheral or chip the creates sound from digital instructions. synthesizer
Name periodically used because that the motherboard. See additionally motherboard. system board
Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory. See likewise front side bus (FSB). system bus
Small quartz decision circuit that is supplied by the processor to manage the time of all computer operations. system clock
Case that consists of the electronic contents of a computer system that are offered to procedure data. system unit
New type of processor the integrates the functions of a processor, memory, and a video card top top a solitary chip. system-on-a-chip
Approximately one trillion bytes. terabyte (TB)
Element the an combined circuit that deserve to act as an electronic switch that opens or close the door the circuit for electric charges. transistor
16-bit coding system that has the ability of representing an ext than 65,000 characters and symbols. Unicode
Port the can attach up to 127 various peripherals through a solitary connector type. See also USB port. universal serial bus port
More progressed and faster form of USB. See also Hi-Speed USB. USB 2.0
USB that is much more than 10 times faster than USB 2.0. USB 3.0
Flash memory storage an equipment that plugs in a USB harbor on a computer or portable device. USB speed drive
Device the plugs in a USB port on the device unit and also contains multiple USB port in i beg your pardon cables native USB tools can it is in plugged. USB hub
Port the can affix up come 127 different peripherals v a solitary connector type. See likewise universal serial bus port. USB port
Adapter card that converts computer system output come a video signal the travels v a cable to a monitor, i m sorry displays photo on the screen. See likewise graphics card. video card
Type of memory the loses its materials when a computer’s power is turn off. volatile memory
Technology provided by Intel's dual-core and multi-core processors that provides the capability to track computer system hardware and also software, diagnose and also resolve computer problems, and secure computers from external threats. vPro technology
Windows function that can allocate easily accessible storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional cache. Windows ReadyBoost
Number of bits a computer can interpret and also execute at a given time.

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Intel processor offered by workstations and low-end servers. Xeon