Written: October-November 1847;Source: Selected Works, Volume One, p. 81-97, progression Publishers, Moscow, 1969;First Published: 1914, Eduard Bernstein in the German Social autonomous Party’s Vorwärts!;Translated: Paul Sweezy;Transcribed: Zodiac, MEA 1993; ptcouncil.net 1999;HTML Markup: Brian Baggins;Proofed: and also corrected through Andy Blunden, February 2005.

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Document Introduction.

— 1 — What is Communism?

Communism is the theory of the conditions of theliberation that the proletariat.

— 2 — What is the proletariat?

The proletariat is that course in culture which livesentirely indigenous the revenue of that is labor and does not draw profit from any kindof capital; whose weal and woe, whose life and death,whose sole presence depends on the demand for job – hence, top top the changingstate the business, top top the vagaries the unbridled competition. The proletariat,or the course of proletarians, is, in a word, the working course of the 19thcentury.<1>

— 3 — Proletarians, then, have actually not always existed?

No. Over there have constantly been poor and working classes;and the working course have largely been poor. But there have not alwaysbeen workers and also poor people living under problems as they room today;in other words, there have actually not constantly been proletarians, any much more thanthere has constantly been free unbridled competitions.

— 4 — exactly how did the proletariat originate?

The Proletariat source in the commercial revolution,which took place in England in the last half of the last (18th) century,and which has since then been recurring in every the civilized nations ofthe world.

This industrial revolution was precipitated by the discovery ofthe steam engine, miscellaneous spinning machines, the mechanical loom, and awhole collection of various other mechanical devices. This machines, which were veryexpensive and also hence might be bought only by huge capitalists, changed thewhole mode of production and also displaced the former workers, because themachines turned the end cheaper and much better commodities 보다 the employees couldproduce through their inefficient spinning wheels and handlooms. The machinesdelivered market wholly right into the hands of the large capitalists and renderedentirely worthless the meagre residential property of the workers (tools, looms, etc.).The result was the the capitalists quickly had everything in your handsand nothing continued to be to the workers. This marked the introduction of thefactory system right into the textile industry.

Once the advertise to the advent of machinery and the factorysystem had been given, this mechanism spread conveniently to all various other branchesof industry, particularly cloth- and book-printing, pottery, and also the metalindustries.

Labor was much more and more divided amongst the individual workers sothat the worker that previously had actually done a complete piece of work currently didonly a part of the piece. This department of labor made it feasible to producethings faster and also cheaper. It reduced the activity of the separation, personal, instance workerto simple, endlessly repeated mechanical motions which could be performednot only as well but much better by a machine. In this way, every these industriesfell, one after another, under the dominance of steam, machinery, and also thefactory system, just as spinning and also weaving had currently done.

But at the very same time, they likewise fell right into the hands of huge capitalists,and their employees were deprived of every little thing independence remained to them.Gradually, not only genuine to produce but additionally handicrafts come withinthe province of the factory system as huge capitalists increasingly displacedthe tiny master craftsmen by setting up large workshops, which saved manyexpenses and permitted one elaborate division of labor.

This is exactly how it has actually come around that in civilized countries at thepresent time virtually all type of labor space performed in factory – and,in nearly all branches of work, handicrafts and manufacture have actually been superseded.This procedure has, to an ever greater degree, ruined the old center class,especially the tiny handicraftsmen; it has completely transformed the conditionof the workers; and two brand-new classes have been produced which space graduallyswallowing up all the others. This are:

(i) The class of huge capitalists, who, in all polite countries,are already in virtually exclusive possession of every the means of subsistanceand that the instruments (machines, factories) and materials essential forthe production of the means of subsistence. This is the bourgeois class,or the bourgeoisie.

(ii) The class of the completely propertyless, who space obligedto offer their labor to the bourgeoisie in order come get, in exchange, themeans that subsistence for their support. This is called the class of proletarians,or the proletariat.

— 5 — Under what conditions does this sale of thelabor the the proletarians to the bourgeoisie take it place?

Labor is a commodity, like any other, and its priceis as such determined by specifically the same legislations that use to other commodities.In a regimen of big industry or of cost-free competition – together we chandelier see,the two pertained to the very same thing – the price of a commodity is, top top the average,always same to its expense of production. Hence, the price of job is alsoequal come the expense of production of labor.

But, the expenses of manufacturing of labor consist of specifically thequantity of way of subsistence crucial to enable the worker to continueworking, and to protect against the working class from dice out. The worker willtherefore gain no much more for his labor 보다 is essential for this purpose;the price that labor, or the wage, will, in various other words, it is in the lowest, theminimum, compelled for the maintenance of life.

However, because business is sometimes much better and occasionally worse,it complies with that the worker sometimes gets more and occasionally gets lessfor his commodities. But, again, simply as the industrialist, top top the averageof an excellent times and bad, gets no much more and no less for his commodities thanwhat lock cost, likewise on the median the worker it s okay no much more and noless 보다 his minimum.

This financial law of wages operates the an ext strictly the greaterthe level to which big industry has actually taken possession of all branches ofproduction.

— 6 — What working classes to be there before the commercial revolution?

The working classes have always, follow to thedifferent stages of advance of society, live in various circumstancesand had various relations to the owning and also ruling classes.

In antiquity, the workers were the servants of the owners, justas lock still are in countless backward countries and also even in the southern partof the unified States.

In the middle Ages, they were the serfs of the land-owning nobility,as lock still are in Hungary, Poland, and Russia. In the center Ages, andindeed appropriate up to the commercial revolution, there were additionally journeymenin the urban who operated in the service of small bourgeois masters. Gradually,as to produce developed, these journeymen came to be manufacturing workerswho were even then employed by bigger capitalists.

— 7 — In what means do proletarians different from slaves?

The servant is sold once and also for all; the proletarianmust offer himself daily and also hourly.

The separation, personal, instance slave, residential or commercial property of one master, is assured an existence,however miserable it might be, since of the master’s interest. The individualproletarian, residential or commercial property as it were of the entire bourgeois class which buyshis job only when someone has need that it, has actually no for sure existence. Thisexistence is assured only to the class as a whole.

The slave is outside competition; the proletarian is in it andexperiences all its vagaries.

The servant counts as a thing, not as a member of society. Thus,the slave deserve to have a better existence than the proletarian, when the proletarianbelongs come a greater stage the social advancement and, himself, stands ona greater social level than the slave.

The slave frees himself when, of all the relationships of privateproperty, he abolishes only the relation of slavery and thereby becomesa proletarian; the proletarian can totally free himself just by abolishing privateproperty in general.

— 8 — In what means do proletarians different from serfs?

The serf possesses and uses an tool of production,a item of land, in exchange because that which he provides up a part of his productor part of the solutions of his labor.

The proletarian works through the tools of manufacturing of another,for the account of this other, in exchange because that a part of the product.

The serf provides up, the proletarian receives. The serf has actually an assuredexistence, the proletarian has actually not. The serf is exterior competition, theproletarian is in it.

The serf liberates self in one of three ways: either he runsaway to the city and also there becomes a handicraftsman; or, rather of productsand services, he provides money to his lord and thereby becomes a freetenant; or the overthrows his feudal lord and himself i do not care a propertyowner. In short, through one course or another, the gets into the owning classand enters into competition. The proletarian liberates himself by abolishingcompetition, exclusive property, and all course differences.

— 9 — In what way do proletarians differ from handicraftsmen?

In contrast to the proletarian, the so-called handicraftsman, together hestill existed virtually everywhere in the previous (eighteenth) century and also stillexists here and there at present, is a proletarian at most temporarily.His goal is to acquire funding himself wherewith to exploit other workers.He deserve to often achieve this goal where guilds still exist or wherein freedomfrom guild restrictions has not yet resulted in the arrival of factory-stylemethods right into the crafts nor yet to fierce competition. But as soon as thefactory system has actually been introduced right into the crafts and also competition flourishesfully, this view dwindles away and the handicraftsman becomes moreand an ext a proletarian. The handicraftsman therefore frees himself by becomingeither bourgeois or entering the middle class in general, orbecoming a proletarian since of competition (as is now more often thecase). In which instance he can cost-free himself by joining the proletarian movement,i.e., the an ext or much less communist movement.<2>

— 10 — In what method do proletarians differ from manufacturing workers?

The production worker of the 16th come the 18th centuriesstill had, v but couple of exception, an instrument of production in his ownpossession – his loom, the family members spinning wheel, a little plot of landwhich he grew in his spare time. The proletarian has none of thesethings.

The manufacturing worker nearly always lives in the countrysideand in a more or less patriarchal relation to his landlord or employer;the proletarian lives, for the most part, in the city and also his relationto his employee is purely a cash relation.

The production worker is torn out of his patriarchal relationby large industry, loses whatever property he still has, and also in this waybecomes a proletarian.

— 11 — What were the immediate aftermath of the industrial revolution andof the division of culture into bourgeoisie and proletariat?

First, the lower and lower price of commercial productsbrought around by maker labor totally destroyed, in all nations of theworld, the old system of manufacture or market based ~ above hand labor.

In this way, every semi-barbarian countries, which had hithertobeen much more or less strangers to historic development, and whose industryhad been based upon manufacture, to be violently required out of your isolation.They purchase the cheaper commodities of the English and allowed their ownmanufacturing workers to be ruined. Nations which had actually known no progressfor hundreds of years – for example, India – were completely revolutionized,and also China is now on the method to a revolution.

We have come to the allude where a new maker invented in Englanddeprives numerous Chinese workers of their livelihood within a year’stime.

In this way, large industry has carried all the people of the Earthinto call with each other, has combined all local markets into one worldmarket, has actually spread civilization and also progress everywhere and has for this reason ensuredthat every little thing happens in civilized nations will have consequences inall other countries.

It follows that if the employees in England or France currently liberatethemselves, this must set off change in all other countries – revolutionswhich, sooner or later, must achieve the liberation of their respectiveworking class.

Second, wherever big industries displaced manufacture,the bourgeoisie occurred in wealth and power to the utmost and also made itselfthe first class that the country. The result was that wherever this happened,the bourgeoisie took political power into its very own hands and also displaced thehitherto judgment classes, the aristocracy, the guildmasters, and their representative,the absolute monarchy.

The bourgeoisie annihilated the power of the aristocracy, the nobility,by abolishing the entailment of mansions – in various other words, by make landedproperty subject to purchase and sale, and by law away v the specialprivileges that the nobility. It destroyed the power of the guildmastersby abolishing guilds and also handicraft privileges. In their place, the putcompetition – the is, a state of culture in which everyone has the rightto go into into any type of branch of industry, the just obstacle being a absence ofthe essential capital.

The advent of complimentary competition is for this reason public declarationthat from currently on the members of society are unequal just to the extentthat their fundings are unequal, that resources is the decisive power, andthat as such the capitalists, the bourgeoisie, have end up being the firstclass in society.

Free compete is important for the facility of huge industry,because it is the only problem of society in which huge industry have the right to makeits way.

Having damaged the social strength of the nobility and also the guildmasters,the bourgeois additionally destroyed your political power. Having raised itselfto the actual place of an initial class in society, it proclaims chin tobe likewise the leading political class. This that does v the introductionof the representative device which rests on bourgeois equality before thelaw and the acknowledgment of totally free competition, and also in european countriestakes the type of constitution monarchy. In this constitutional monarchies,only those that possess a specific capital room voters – that is to say,only members that the bourgeoisie. This bourgeois voters pick the deputies,and this bourgeois deputies, by making use of their appropriate to refuse to poll taxes,choose a bourgeois government.

Third, everywhere the proletariat creates in stepwith the bourgeoisie. In proportion, as the bourgeoisie grows in wealth,the proletariat grows in numbers. For, due to the fact that the proletarians can be employedonly by capital, and since funding extends only through employing labor,it adheres to that the expansion of the proletariat proceeds at exactly thesame speed as the development of capital.

Simultaneously, this process draws members the the bourgeoisieand proletarians together into the an excellent cities whereby industry deserve to be carriedon many profitably, and also by hence throwing an excellent masses in one spot the givesto the proletarians a awareness of their own strength.

Moreover, the further this procedure advances, the an ext new labor-savingmachines room invented, the better is the pressure exercised by huge industryon wages, which, as we have seen, sink to your minimum and therewith renderthe problem of the proletariat increasingly unbearable. The cultivation dissatisfactionof the proletariat therefore joins with its rising power come prepare a proletariansocial revolution.

— 12 — What were the further results of the commercial revolution?

Big industry produced in the vapor engine, and also othermachines, the means of endlessly widening industrial production, speedingit up, and also cutting the costs. V production for this reason facilitated, the freecompetition, which is have to bound up with huge industry, presume themost excessive forms; a multitude of capitalists got into industry, and, ina brief while, much more was developed than to be needed.

As a consequence, finished assets could no be sold, and also a so-calledcommercial crisis damaged out. Factories had to be closed, their owner wentbankrupt, and the workers were there is no bread. Deepest misery reigned everywhere.

After a time, the superfluous commodities were sold, the factoriesbegan to run again, incomes rose, and gradually service got much better thanever.

But it was not long prior to too many commodities were again producedand a brand-new crisis damaged out, just to monitor the very same course together its predecessor.

Ever due to the fact that the start of this (19th) century, the conditionof industry has constantly fluctuated in between periods that prosperity andperiods the crisis; practically every 5 to seven years, a fresh crisis hasintervened, constantly with the greatest hardship because that workers, and constantly accompaniedby basic revolutionary stirrings and the direct peril to the whole existingorder the things.

— 13 — What adheres to from these periodic commercial crises?


That, though huge industry in its earliest stage created complimentary competition,it has actually now outgrown totally free competition;

that, for huge industry, competition and generally the individualistic organization of manufacturing have end up being a fetter which it must and also will shatter;

that, so long as big industry continues to be on its present footing, it can bemaintained just at the expense of basic chaos every seven years, each timethreatening the totality of civilization and not just plunging the proletariansinto misery but also ruining large sections the the bourgeoisie;

hence, one of two people that huge industry have to itself be provided up, i m sorry is one absoluteimpossibility, or that it makes unavoidably vital an entirely brand-new organizationof culture in which manufacturing is no much longer directed by mutually competingindividual industrialists yet rather by the whole culture operating accordingto a definite plan and also taking account of the needs of all.

Second: That large industry, and also the limitless expansionof production which it provides possible, carry within the range of feasibilitya social order in i beg your pardon so much is developed that every member that societywill it is in in a position to exercise and develop every his powers and facultiesin complete freedom.

It thus appears that the very qualities of huge industry which,in our present-day society, develop misery and crises space those which,in a different form of society, will certainly abolish this misery and also these catastrophicdepressions.

We see with the best clarity:

(i) the all this evils space from now on to be ascribed solelyto a social order i beg your pardon no longer coincides to the requirements of thereal situation; and

(ii) that it is possible, with a new social order, todo away through these evils altogether.

— 14 — What will certainly this brand-new social order have to be like?

Above all, it will have to take the regulate of industryand of all branches of manufacturing out that the hands of mutually competingindividuals, and also instead academy a mechanism in which all these branchesof production are operated by culture as a whole – the is, because that the commonaccount, follow to a usual plan, and also with the authorized of allmembers the society.

It will, in other words, abolish competition and replace it withassociation.

Moreover, since the monitoring of market by individuals necessarilyimplies personal property, and also since competition is in reality just themanner and type in which the manage of market by private property ownersexpresses itself, it adheres to that personal property cannot be separatedfrom competition and also the individual administration of industry. Private propertymust, therefore, be abolished and in its ar must come the common utilizationof all tools of production and the circulation of all assets accordingto common agreement – in a word, what is dubbed the communal ownershipof goods.

In fact, the abolition of exclusive property is, doubtless, theshortest and most far-reaching way come characterize the change in thewhole social order which has been made necessary by the advance ofindustry – and for this reason it is rightly advanced by communists astheir key demand.

— 15 — Was no the abolition of private property feasible at an earlier time?

No. Every adjust in the social order, every revolutionin residential or commercial property relations, is the necessary repercussion of the production ofnew pressures of manufacturing which no longer fit right into the old building relations.

Private property has actually not constantly existed.

When, towards the finish of the middle Ages, there arose a new modeof production which can not be brought on under the then existing feudaland guild develops of property, this manufacture, which had actually outgrown the oldproperty relations, created a brand-new property form, personal property. Andfor manufacture and the earliest phase of development of large industry,private residential property was the only possible property form; the social orderbased on it to be the only possible social order.

So lengthy as it is not possible to develop so lot that there isenough for all, with an ext left end for widening the social resources andextending the forces of manufacturing – so long as this is no possible,there must always be a ruling class directing the usage of society’s productiveforces, and a poor, oppressed class. Exactly how these classes space constituteddepends on the stage of development.

The agrarian Middle ages give united state the baron and the serf; the citiesof the later Middle Ages present us the guildmaster and also the journeyman andthe work laborer; the 17th century has actually its manufacturing workers; the 19thhas big factory owners and also proletarians.

It is clear that, up to now, the forces of production have actually neverbeen developed to the suggest where enough can be developed for all, andthat exclusive property has end up being a fetter and also a barrier in relation tothe further breakthrough of the pressures of production.

Now, however, the breakthrough of huge industry has ushered in a brand-new period.Capital and also the pressures of production have actually been increased to one unprecedentedextent, and also the method are at hand to multiply them without limit in thenear future. Moreover, the pressures of production have actually been concentratedin the hand of a few bourgeois, when the great mass that the people aremore and more falling right into the proletariat, your situation coming to be morewretched and also intolerable in proportion come the boost of riches of thebourgeoisie. And also finally, these mighty and also easily expanded forces that productionhave so far outgrown personal property and also the bourgeoisie, that they threatenat any type of moment come unleash the many violent disturbances of the social order.Now, under this conditions, the abolition of private property has actually becomenot only feasible but absolutely necessary.

— 16 — will the peaceful abolition of personal property it is in possible?

It would be preferable if this could happen, and also thecommunists would absolutely be the critical to protest it. Communists recognize onlytoo well that all conspiracies space not only useless, however even harmful.They understand all as well well that changes are no made intentionally andarbitrarily, however that, everywhere and always, they have actually been the necessaryconsequence of conditions which to be wholly live independence of the will certainly anddirection of separation, personal, instance parties and entire classes.

But they likewise see the the advance of the proletariat in nearlyall civilized nations has been violently suppressed, and that in thisway the adversaries of communism have actually been working toward a change withall your strength. If the oppressed proletariat is finally driven to revolution,then we communists will protect the interests of the proletarians with deedsas us now safeguard them v words.

— 17 — will certainly it be possible for exclusive property to be denomination at one stroke?

No, no much more than existing forces of manufacturing canat one hit be multiply to the extent important for the production ofa communal society.

In every probability, the proletarian transformation will transformexisting culture gradually and will have the ability to abolish personal propertyonly as soon as the way of manufacturing are accessible in adequate quantity.

— 18 — What will be the food of this revolution?

Above all, it will establish a democratic constitution,and v this, the straight or indirect prominence of the proletariat.Direct in England, where the proletarians are currently a bulk of thepeople. Indirect in France and also Germany, whereby the majority of the peopleconsists not just of proletarians, but additionally of small peasants and also pettybourgeois who are in the procedure of falling into the proletariat, that aremore and an ext dependent in all their political understanding on the proletariat,and that must, therefore, shortly adapt to the needs of the proletariat.Perhaps this will expense a second struggle, however the outcome deserve to only it is in thevictory that the proletariat.

Democracy would certainly be wholly valueless come the proletariat if that werenot immediately used together a means for putting through steps directed againstprivate property and ensuring the livelihood of the proletariat. The mainmeasures, arising as the necessary result of present relations, room thefollowing:

(i) Limitation of personal property through steady taxation,heavy inheritance taxes, abolition of inheritance through collateral lines(brothers, nephews, etc.) forced loans, etc.

(ii) steady expropriation of landowners, industrialists, railroadmagnates and shipowners, partially through competition by state industry,partly straight through compensation in the kind of bonds.

(iii) Confiscation the the possessions of every emigrantsand rebels versus the majority of the people.

(iv) company of job or employment of proletarianson publicly own land, in factories and also workshops, v competition amongthe workers being abolished and with the manufacturing facility owners, in so far as theystill exist, gift obliged to salary the same high earnings as those paid bythe state.

(v) one equal duty on every members of culture to workuntil together time as exclusive property has been fully abolished. Formationof commercial armies, specifically for agriculture.

(vi) Centralization the money and credit in the hands ofthe state v a national financial institution with state capital, and the suppressionof all exclusive banks and bankers.

(vii) boost in the number of national factories, workshops,railroads, ships; bringing brand-new lands into farming and development ofland already under growing – every in proportion come the development of thecapital and labor force at the handle of the nation.

(viii) education of all children, native the minute they have the right to leavetheir mother’s care, in national facilities at nationwide cost. Educationand production together.

(ix) Construction, on publicly lands, of great palaces ascommunal homes for associated groups of citizens involved in both industryand farming and combine in their method of life the advantages of urbanand rural problems while staying clear of the one-sidedness and drawbacks ofeach.

(x) damage of every unhealthy and also jerry-built dwellingsin urban districts.

(xi) same inheritance rights for youngsters born in andout that wedlock.

(xii) Concentration that all means of transport in thehands the the nation.

It is impossible, the course, to bring out every these procedures at once. Butone will constantly bring rather in that wake. As soon as the an initial radical attackon personal property has actually been launched, the proletariat will discover itselfforced to go ever before further, come concentrate significantly in the hand ofthe state every capital, every agriculture, every transport, all trade. Every theforegoing procedures are command to this end; and they will end up being practicableand feasible, qualified of creating their centralizing effects to preciselythe degree that the proletariat, through its labor, multiplies the country’sproductive forces.

Finally, as soon as all capital, all production, every exchange have been broughttogether in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear ofits own accord, money will come to be superfluous, and production will so expandand male so readjust that society will have the ability to slough off every little thing of itsold economic behavior may remain.

— 19 — will certainly it be possible for this revolution to take place in one countryalone?

No. By creating the world market, big industry hasalready lugged all the individuals of the Earth, and especially the civilizedpeoples, into such close relation with one one more that nobody is independentof what wake up to the others.

Further, it has co-ordinated the social advance of the civilizedcountries to such an extent that, in every one of them, bourgeoisie and proletariathave become the decisive classes, and also the struggle between them the greatstruggle that the day. It complies with that the communist transformation will notmerely it is in a national phenomenon but must take ar simultaneously in allcivilized countries – the is to say, at least in England, America, France,and Germany.

It will construct in every of this countries much more or much less rapidly,according together one nation or the other has actually a more developed industry, greaterwealth, a more far-ranging mass of fertile forces. Hence, it will goslowest and also will satisfy most obstacles in Germany, most rapidly and withthe fewest obstacles in England. It will have a powerful impact ~ above theother countries of the world, and will radically change the food of developmentwhich lock have complied with up to now, while significantly stepping up its pace.

It is a universal change and will, accordingly, have actually a universalrange.

— 20 — What will certainly be the consequences of theultimate disappearance of personal property?

Society will take all forces of production and meansof commerce, and also the exchange and also distribution the products, outof the hand of exclusive capitalists and will regulate them in accordancewith a setup based on the availability of resources and also the demands of thewhole society. In this way, most essential of all, the angry consequenceswhich are now linked with the conduct of big industry will certainly be abolished.

There will certainly be no an ext crises; the increased production, which forthe current order of society is overproduction and also hence a prevailing causeof misery, will certainly then it is in insufficient and in require of being expanded muchfurther. Rather of generating misery, overproduction will reach beyondthe elementary demands of culture to assure the satisfaction that theneeds the all; it will create new needs and, in ~ the very same time, the meansof to solve them. That will become the problem of, and the economic stimulation to,new progress, which will certainly no much longer throw the totality social order into confusion,as development has always done in the past. Large industry, freed from the pressureof personal property, will undergo such an growth that what we currently seewill seem together petty in comparison as manufacture seems once put next to thebig sector of our own day. This development of market will make availableto culture a enough mass of commodities to accomplish the demands of everyone.

The same will be true that agriculture, which also suffers fromthe push of private property and also is held ago by the department of privatelyowned soil into tiny parcels. Here, present improvements and scientificprocedures will certainly be put right into practice, v a resulting leap forward whichwill assure to society all the assets it needs.

In this way, such an abundance of items will have the ability to satisfythe needs of all its members.

The division of culture into different, mutually hostile classeswill then end up being unnecessary. Indeed, it will certainly be not only unnecessary butintolerable in the new social order. The visibility of classes originatedin the department of labor, and also the division of labor, together it has actually been knownup come the present, will fully disappear. Because that mechanical and chemicalprocesses are not sufficient to carry industrial and farming productionup to the level we have actually described; the capacities of the guys who do useof these processes have to undergo a corresponding development.

Just together the peasants and also manufacturing employees of the last centurychanged their whole method of life and also became rather different human being whenthey were attracted into large industry, in the exact same way, communal controlover manufacturing by culture as a whole, and also the resulting new development,will both call for an entirely different kind of person material.

People will no much longer be, as they are today, subordinated come asingle branch of production, bound come it, exploited by it; they will certainly nolonger build one of their faculties at the expense of all others; theywill no longer understand only one branch, or one branch the a solitary branch,of production as a whole. Also industry as it is today is detect suchpeople less and also less useful.

Industry controlled by society as a whole, and also operated accordingto a plan, presupposes well-rounded human beings, their faculties developedin well balanced fashion, able to see the device of production in the entirety.

The kind of the department of labor which renders one a peasant, anothera cobbler, a 3rd a factory worker, a 4th a stock-market operator,has already been undermined through machinery and will fully disappear.Education will allow young people quickly to familiarize themselves withthe entirety system that production and also to pass from one branch that productionto an additional in an answer to the needs of society or their own inclinations.It will, therefore, totally free them native the one-sided personality which the present-daydivision of labor impresses ~ above every individual. Communist society will,in this way, make it feasible for that members to put their comprehensivelydeveloped faculties to full use. But, once this happens, classes will necessarilydisappear. It complies with that culture organized on a communist basis is incompatiblewith the presence of great on the one hand, and that the really buildingof such a culture provides the way of abolishing course differences onthe other.

A corollary that this is that the difference in between city and also countryis destined come disappear. The management of farming and sector bythe same human being rather than by two various classes of human being is, if onlyfor purely product reasons, a necessary condition of communist association.The dispersal that the agricultural populace on the land, alongside thecrowding that the industrial population into the good cities, is a conditionwhich corresponds to one undeveloped state of both farming and industryand can currently be felt as an problem to more development.

The basic co-operation of every members of culture for the purposeof planned exploitation the the pressures of production, the expansion of productionto the allude where the will accomplish the needs of all, the abolition of asituation in which the requirements of some space satisfied in ~ the price of theneeds of others, the finish liquidation the classes and their conflicts,the rounded advance of the capacities of every members of society throughthe removed of the present division of labor, through commercial education,through engaging in varying activities, with the participation by allin the enjoyments developed by all, through the mix of city andcountry – these are the main consequences of the abolition that privateproperty.

— 21 — What will certainly be the influence of communist society on the family?

It will transform the relations in between the sexesinto a purely private matter which concerns only the persons involved andinto which society has no occasion to intervene. It have the right to do this sinceit does far with private property and also educates children on a communalbasis, and also in this means removes the 2 bases of classic marriage –the dependence rooted in private property, of the females on the man, andof the kids on the parents.

And here is the answer come the outcry of the extremely moral philistinesagainst the “community that women”. Ar of females is a condition whichbelongs totally to bourgeois culture and which this particular day finds its completeexpression in prostitution. Yet prostitution is based upon private propertyand falls with it. Thus, communist society, rather of introducing communityof women, in fact abolishes it.

— 22 — What will certainly be the mindset of communist to present nationalities?

The nationalities of the individuals associating themselves in accordancewith the rule of ar will it is in compelled come mingle through each otheras a an outcome of this association and thereby to dissolve themselves, justas the miscellaneous estate and also class distinctions have to disappear v theabolition of their basis, private property.<3>

— 23 — What will certainly be its mindset to present religions?

All religious beliefs so much have been the expression of historical stagesof development of individual individuals or teams of peoples. Yet communismis the phase of historical advance which makes all currently religionssuperfluous and brings around their disappearance<4>

— 24 — how do communists different from socialists?

The so-called socialists are split into 3 categories.

< Reactionary Socialists: >

The an initial category consists of adherents that a feudal and also patriarchalsociety i beg your pardon has already been destroyed, and is still day-to-day being destroyed,by big industry and also world trade and also their creation, bourgeoes society.This classification concludes, from the malice of currently society, the feudaland patriarchal society must be revitalized because it was totally free of together evils.In one way or another, all your proposals room directed to this end.

This category of reactionary socialists, because that all their seemingpartisanship and also their scalding tears for the misery of the proletariat,is nevertheless energetically protest by the communists for the followingreasons:

(i) it strives for something i beg your pardon is completely impossible.

(ii) It seeks to create the preeminence of the aristocracy,the guildmasters, the small producers, and their retinue of absolute orfeudal monarchs, officials, soldiers, and also priests – a society which was,to be sure, free of the malice of present-day culture but which broughtit at least as numerous evils without even offering come the oppressed workersthe prospect of liberation with a communist revolution.

(iii) As shortly as the proletariat i do not care revolutionaryand communist, these reactionary socialists show their true colors by immediatelymaking common reason with the bourgeoisie versus the proletarians.

< bourgees Socialists: >

The 2nd category is composed of adherents of contemporary societywho have actually been frightened for its future by the malice to which the necessarilygives rise. What castle want, therefore, is to keep this society whilegetting rid the the malice which space an inherent part of it.

To this end, part propose only welfare procedures – when otherscome forward v grandiose equipment of revolutionary which, under the pretenseof re-organizing society, room in reality intended to preserve the foundations,and thus the life, of present society.

Communists need to unremittingly struggle against these bourgeoissocialists due to the fact that they work for the opponents of communists and protectthe culture which communists target to overthrow.

< autonomous Socialists: >

Finally, the third category consists of autonomous socialistswho favor few of the same measures the communists advocate, together describedin concern 18, no as part of the transition to communism, however, butas measures which they think will be sufficient to abolish the miseryand evils of present-day society.

These democratic socialists space either proletarians who are notyet sufficiently clear about the problems of the liberation of theirclass, or they space representatives of the petty bourgeoisie, a course which,prior come the accomplishment of democracy and the socialist procedures to whichit provides rise, has countless interests in usual with the proletariat.

It follows that, in moment of action, the communists will haveto concerned an understanding with these democratic socialists, and in generalto follow as much as possible a usual policy v them – noted thatthese socialists perform not enter into the organization of the ruling bourgeoisieand attack the communists.

It is clear the this type of co-operation in activity does notexclude the discussion of differences.

— 25 — What is the attitude of the communists come theother political parties of ours time?

This attitude is different in the different countries.

In England, France, and also Belgium, whereby the bourgeoisie rules,the communists still have a usual interest with the various democraticparties, an attention which is all the greater the more closely the socialisticmeasures castle champion strategy the intends of the communists – that is,the more plainly and certainly they represent the understanding of the proletariatand the an ext they rely on the proletariat for support. In England, forexample, the working-class Chartists are infinitelycloser come the communists than the autonomous petty bourgeoisie or the so-calledRadicals.

In America, whereby a democratic constitution has currently been established,the communists must make the common cause with the party which will certainly turnthis constitution versus the bourgeoisie and use the in the interests ofthe proletariat – that is, v the agrarian nationwide Reformers.

In Switzerland, the Radicals, despite a an extremely mixed party, room theonly group with i beg your pardon the communists have the right to co-operate, and, among these Radicals,the Vaudois and Genevese space the many advanced.

In Germany, finally, the decisive struggle now on the stimulate of the dayis that between the bourgeoisie and the pure monarchy. Because the communistscannot enter upon the decisive struggle between themselves and also the bourgeoisieuntil the bourgeoisie is in power, it adheres to that the is in the interestof the communists to aid the bourgeoisie to power as soon as possiblein order the sooner to be able to overthrow it. Against the governments,therefore, the communists have to continually assistance the radical liberalparty, taking care to prevent the self-deceptions that the bourgeoisie andnot fall for the enticing assures of benefits which a win for thebourgeoisie would certainly allegedly lug to the proletariat. The single advantageswhich the proletariat would certainly derive indigenous a bourgeois success would consist

(i) in assorted concessions which would certainly facilitate the unificationof the proletariat right into a carefully knit, battle-worthy, and also organized class;and

(ii) in the definitely that, ~ above the an extremely day the absolutemonarchies fall, the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat willstart. From that day on, the plan of the communists will certainly be the sameas it now is in the nations where the bourgeoisie is already in power.


The adhering to footnotes are from the Chinese edition of Marx/Engels Selected Works, Peking, foreign Languages Press, 1977, v editorial additions by ptcouncil.net


Introduction In 1847 Engels wrote 2 draft programmesfor the Communist organization in the form of a catechism, one in June and also the other in October. The latter, i m sorry is recognized as Principles that Communism,was an initial published in 1914. The earlier paper Draft of the Communist Confession that Faith, to be only found in 1968. That was first publishedin 1969 in Hamburg, in addition to four other documents pertaining to first congress of the Communist League, in a booklet entitled GründungsDokumente des Bundes der Kommunisten (Juni bis September 1847) (FoundingDocuments that the Communist League).

At the June 1847 congress of the organization of the Just, which was also the founding conference of the Communist League, it was decided to worry a breeze “confession that faith” come be it is registered for discussion to the sections of the League. The paper which has actually now concerned light is nearly certainly this draft. To compare of the two files shows that Principles of Communism is a revised edition the this previously draft. In Principles the Communism, Engels left three inquiries unanswered, in two situations with the notation “unchanged” (bleibt); this plainly refers come the answers listed in the previously draft.

The brand-new draft because that the programme was settled by Engels ~ above theinstructions of the leading human body of the Paris circle of the Communist League.The indict were chose on after Engles’ spicy criticism in ~ the committeemeeting, ~ above October 22, 1847, the the draft programme attracted up by the “truesocialist” Moses Hess, which to be then rejected.

Still considering principles of communist as a preliminary draft, Engels to express the view, in a letter come Marx dated November 23-24 1847, the it would be best to fall the old catechistic kind and attract up a programme in the type of a manifesto.

“Think end the Confession of faith a bit. I think we had better drop the catechism type and call the thing: Communist Manifesto. As an ext or less background has gained to be associated in it, the kind it has been in hitherto is quite unsuitable. Ns am happen what I have actually done right here with me; it is in simple narrative form, but miserably worded, in fear haste. ...”

At the second congress that the CommunistLeague (November 29-December 8, 1847) Marx and also Engels safeguarded the fundamentalscientific ethics of communism and were trusted through drafting a programmein the form of a declaration of the Communist Party. In writing the manifestothe founders of Marxism made usage of the propositions enunciated in Principlesof Communism.

Engels uses the hatchet Manufaktur, and also its derivatives, which have been analyzed “manufacture”, “manufacturing”, etc., Engels provided this native literally, to suggest production by hand, not manufacturing facility production because that which Engels supplies “big industry”. Manufaktur different from handicraft (guild manufacturing in mediaeval towns), in that the last was carried out by live independence artisans. Manufacktur is brought out by homeworkers working for seller capitalists, or by groups of craftspeople working together in big workshops owned by capitalists. That is therefore a transitional mode of production, between guild (handicraft) and modern (capitalist) forms of production.

(Last paragraph paraphrased native theIntroduction by Pluto Press, London, 1971)

1. In their works written in later on periods,Marx and Engels substituted the much more accurate principles of “sale of labourpower”, “value of work power” and also “price of work power” (first presented by Marx) for “sale the labour”, “value that labour” and also “price the labour”, as supplied here.

2. Engels left half a page empty herein the manuscript. The Draft that the Communist Confession of Faith, has the answer shown for the same concern (Number 12).

3. Engels’ put “unchanged” here, referring to the price in the June draft under No. 21 which is shown.

4. Similarly, this refers to the answer to Question23 in the June draft.

5. The Chartists were the participants in thepolitical motion of the British workers which lasted native the 1830s tothe center 1850s and also had as its slogan the fostering of a People’s Charter,demanding global franchise and a collection of conditions guaranteeing votingrights for all workers. Lenin defined Chartism together the world’s “first broad,truly mass and politically arranged proletarian revolutionary movement” (Collected Works, Eng. Ed., progression Publishers, Moscow, 1965, Vol.29, p. 309.) The decline of the Chartist activity was due to the strengtheningof Britain’s industrial and commercial monopoly and the bribing of theupper stratum the the working course (“the labour aristocracy”) by the Britishbourgeoisie the end of that is super-profits. Both factors led to the strengtheningof opportunist tendencies in this stratum together expressed, in particular,by the refuse of the profession union leaders to assistance Chartism.

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6.Probably a recommendations to the national Reform Association, founded throughout the 1840s by George H. Evans, v headquarters in brand-new York City, which had actually for its motto, “Vote yourself a Farm”.

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