Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and also tasteless gas the is the many abundant element in the recognized universe. It is likewise the lightest (in regards to atomic mass) and the simplest, having actually only one proton and also one electron (and no neutron in that most typical isotope). It is all roughly us. That is a component of water (H2O), fats, petroleum, table sugar (C6H12O6), ammonia (NH3), and also hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)—things essential to life, together we understand it.
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Hydrogen Factsatomic Number: 1 atom Symbol: H atomic Weight: 1.0079 electronic Configuration: 1s1 Oxidation States: 1, -1 atomic Radius: 78 pm melting Point: -259.34°C cook Point: -252.87° C element Classification: Non-Metal in ~ Room Temperature: Colorless & Odorless Diatomic Gas
History of Hydrogen
Hydrogen comes from Greek meaning “water producer” (“hydro” =water and also “gennao”=to make). An initial isolated and identified as an element by Cavendish in 1766, hydrogen was thought to be countless different things. Cavendish himself believed that it was "inflammable waiting from metals", fan to its manufacturing by the action of mountain on metals. Prior to that, Robert Boyle and also Paracelsus both provided reactions the iron and acids to develop hydrogen gas and also Antoine Lavoisier gave hydrogen that name due to the fact that it created water once ignited in air. Others believed it to be pure phlogiston due to the fact that of that is flammability. Hydrogen is among the ten many abundant elements on the planet, yet very small is found in elemental kind due to its short density and reactivity. Lot of the terrestrial hydrogen is locked up in water molecules and organic compounds like hydrocarbons.
Properties that Hydrogen
Hydrogen is a nonmetal and is placed over group in the routine table due to the fact that it has ns1 electron configuration choose the alkali metals. However, that varies substantially from the alkali metals as it forms cations (H+) more reluctantly than the other alkali metals. Hydrogen‘s ionization energy is 1312 kJ/mol, while lithium (the alkali metal with the highest possible ionization energy) has actually an ionization energy of 520 kJ/mol.
Because hydrogen is a nonmetal and also forms H- (hydride anions), it is sometimes placed over the halogens in the routine table. Hydrogen likewise forms H2 dihydrogen choose halogens. However, hydrogen is very different native the halogens. Hydrogen has a much smaller electron affinity than the halogens.
H2 dihydrogen or molecule hydrogen is non-polar through two electrons. There space weak attractive forces in between H2 molecules, bring about low boiling and also melting points. However, H2 has actually very strong intramolecular forces; H2 reaction are generally slow in ~ room temperature early out to strong H—H bond. H2 is conveniently activated through heat, irradiation, or catalysis. Caused hydrogen gas reacts really quickly and also exothermically with many substances.
Hydrogen additionally has an capacity to kind covalent bonds through a large variety of substances. Since it makes solid O—H bonds, that is a great reducing certified dealer for metal oxides. Example: CuO(s) + H2(g) → Cu(s) + H2O(g) H2(g) passes end CuO(s) to minimize the Cu2+ come Cu(s), while gaining oxidized itself.
Reactions that Hydrogen
Hydrogen"s short ionization power makes it act favor an alkali metal:
However, that half-filled valence covering (with a (1s^1) configuration) with one (e^-) additionally causes hydrogen come act prefer a halogen non-metal to obtain noble gas construction by adding second electron
Reactions the Hydrogen with energetic Metals
Hydrogen accepts e- from an active metal to type ionic hydrides like LiH. By creating an ion through -1 charge, the hydrogen behaves like a halogen.
Group 1 metals
<2M_(s)+H_2(g) ightarrow 2MH_(s)>
with (M) representing team 1 Alkali steels
Examples:(2K_(s)+H_2(g) ightarrow 2KH_(s)) (2K_(s)+Cl_2(g) ightarrow 2KCl_(s))
Group 2 metals
with (M) representing team 2 Alkaline planet metals
Example:(Ca_(s)+H_2(g) ightarrow CaH_2(s)) (Ca_(s)+Cl_2(g) ightarrow CaCl_2(s))
Reactions the Hydrogen with Nonmetals
Unlike metals forming ionic bonds with nonmetals, hydrogen develops polar covalent bonds. Despite being electropositive favor the active metals that type ionic bonds through nonmetals, hydrogen is much less electropositive than the active metals, and also forms covalent bonds.
Hydrogen + Halogen → Hydrogen Halide
Hydrogen gas reacting through oxygen to develop water and also a huge amount the heat: Hydrogen + Oxygen → Water
<(H_2(g)+O_2(g) ightarrow H_2O_(g)>
Uses & Application
The vast majority of hydrogen produced industrially this particular day is made one of two people from treatment of methane gas with steam or in the production of "water gas" native the reaction that coal v steam. Most of this hydrogen is used in the Haber process to manufacture ammonia.
Hydrogen is likewise used for hydrogenation vegetable oils, transforming them into margarine and also shortening, and also some is supplied for fluid rocket fuel. Fluid hydrogen (combined v liquid oxygen) is a major component the rocket fuel (as mentioned above mix of hydrogen and oxygen relapses a large amount of energy). Due to the fact that hydrogen is a an excellent reducing agent, the is used to produce metals like iron, copper, nickel, and also cobalt from your ores.
Because one cubic feet of hydrogen deserve to lift about 0.07 lbs, hydrogen lifted airships or Zeppelins became very common in the early on 1900s.However, the usage of hydrogen because that this objective was largely discontinued approximately World battle II after the to explode of The Hindenburg; this prompted higher use the inert helium, rather than flammable hydrogen because that air travel.
Video reflecting the to explode of The Hindenburg. (Video from Youtube)
Recently, due to the fear of fossil fuels running out, extensive research is being done on hydrogen as a source of energy.Because of your moderately high energy densities fluid hydrogen and compressed hydrogen gas are feasible fuels because that the future.A substantial advantage in making use of them is the their combustion only produces water (it burns “clean”). However, it is really costly, and not economically feasible with current technology.
Combustion that fuel produces power that have the right to be converted into electric energy when energy in the steam turns a generator to journey a generator. However, this is not very efficient since a great deal of energy is lost as heat. The manufacturing of electricity using voltaic cell have the right to yield an ext electricity (a type of usable energy). Voltaic cells that transform ptcouncil.netical power in fuels (like H2 and also CH4) are referred to as fuel cells. These space not self-contained and so are not considered batteries. The hydrogen cell is a form of fuel cell including the reaction in between H2(g) with O2(g) to form liquid water; this cell is twice as efficient as the best internal combustion engine. In the cabinet (in basic conditions), the oxygen is diminished at the cathode, when the hydrogen is oxidized in ~ the anode.
Reduction: O2(g)+2H2O(l)+4e- → 4OH-(aq)
Oxidation: H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) → 2H2O(l) + 2e-
Overall: 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)
E°cell= Reduction- Oxidation= E°O2/OH- - E°H2O/H2 = 0.401V – (-0.828V) = +1.23
However, this modern technology is far from being offered in everyday life because of its an excellent costs.
ReferencesShultz, M., Kelly, M., Paritsky, L., Wagner, J. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel that the Future. Newspaper of ptcouncil.netical education 2009 86 (9), 105. Rigden, John. Hydrogen: The necessary Element. The President and also Fellows of Harvard College. 2003. Banks, Alton. Hydrogen. Journal of ptcouncil.netical education and learning 1989 66 (10), 801. Petrucci, Ralph H. General ptcouncil.netistry. Nine ed. Top Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print Sadava, Heller, Orians, Purves, Hillis. Life The science of Biology. 8 hours ed. Sunderland, MA: W.H. Freeman, 2008. Dinga, G. Hydrogen:The ultimate fuel and also energy carrier.
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newspaper of ptcouncil.netical education 1988 65 (8), 688.
Problemscompose the reaction that Na(s) with H2(g). What is the surname of the radiation isotope of hydrogen? What features of alkali metals does hydrogen display? What characteristics of halogens does hydrogen display? how does the electronegativity that hydrogen compare to the of the halogens? What is the electron construction of a neutral hydrogen atom.
Answers2Na(s) + H2(g)→ 2NaH(s) Tritium Hydrogen is placed above group in the routine table because it has ns1 electron configuration prefer the alkali metals. However, the varies significantly from the alkali steels as it develops cations (H+) more reluctantly 보다 the various other alkali metals. Hydrogen‘s ionization energy is 1312 kJ/mol, when lithium (the alkali steel with the greatest ionization energy) has an ionization power of 520 kJ/mol. Because hydrogen is a nonmetal and forms H- (hydride anions), that is occasionally placed above the halogens in the periodic table. Hydrogen additionally forms H2 dihydrogen favor halogens. However, hydrogen is very different native the halogens. Hydrogen has actually a much smaller electron affinity than the halogens. Hydrogen is less electronegative than the halogens. 1s1